Nabi (37) will continue as a player, but said he and the selectors were not “on the same page”.
“From the last one year, our team preparation has not been at a level that a captain would want or need for a major tournament,” he said in a statement on Twitter.
“Furthermore, the team manager, selection committee and I were not on the same page in some of the last tours, which had implications on the team balance.”
— Mohammad Nabi (@MohammadNabi007) 1667568227000
He wrote: “Therefore, with due respect, I announce, with immediate effect, to step down as captain and will continue to play for my country whenever the management and team need me.”
Afghanistan, coached by ex England batsman Jonathan Trott, finished the Super 12 stage in Australia without a win.
They had two washouts and two defeats to sit at the bottom of the six-team table in Group 1.
A middle-order batsman and off-spinner, Nabi has played 104 T20 matches for Afghanistan since his debut in 2010.